MASSACHUSETTS PRUDENT INVESTOR ACT
2019 Massachusetts General Laws
Part II – Real and Personal Property and Domestic Relations
Title II – Descent and Distribution, Wills, Estates of Deceased Persons and Absentees, Guardianship, Conservatorship and Trusts
Chapter 203c – Prudent Investment
Section 1 – Citation
This chapter shall be known as and may be cited as the Massachusetts Prudent Investor Act.
Section 2 – Trustees Managing Trust Assets; Duty to Comply With Prudent Investor Rule
(a) Except as provided in subsection (b), a trustee who invests and manages trust assets shall owe a duty to the beneficiaries of a trust to comply with the prudent investor rule set forth in this chapter.
(b) The prudent investor rule may be expanded, restricted, eliminated or otherwise altered by the provisions of a trust. A trustee shall not be liable to a beneficiary to the extent that the trustee acted in reasonable reliance on the provisions of the trust.
Section 3 – Investment and Management Decisions
(a) A trustee shall invest and manage trust assets as a prudent investor would, considering the purposes, terms, and other circumstances of the trust, including those set forth in subsection (c). In satisfying this standard, the trustee shall exercise reasonable care, skill, and caution.
(b) A trustee’s investment and management decisions respecting individual assets shall be considered in the context of the trust portfolio as a part of an overall investment strategy reasonably suited to the trust.
(c) Among circumstances that a trustee shall consider in investing and managing trust assets are such of the following as are relevant to the trust or its beneficiaries:
(1) general economic conditions;
(2) the possible effect of inflation or deflation;
(3) the expected tax consequences of investment decisions or strategies;
(4) the role that each investment or course of action plays within the overall trust portfolio;
(5) the expected total return from income and the appreciation of capital;
(6) other resources of the beneficiaries;
(7) needs for liquidity, regularity of income, and preservation or appreciation of capital; and
(8) an asset’s special relationship or special value, if any, to the purposes of the trust or to one of the beneficiaries.
(d) A trustee shall make a reasonable effort to verify facts relevant to the investment and management of trust assets.
(e) A trustee may invest in any kind of property or type of investment consistent with the standards of this chapter.
(f) A trustee who has special skills or expertise, or is named trustee in reliance upon the trustee’s representation that the trustee has such special skills or expertise, shall have a duty to use such special skills or expertise.
Section 4 – Diversification
A trustee shall reasonably diversify the investments of the trust unless, under the circumstances, it is prudent not to do so.
Section 5 – Review of Assets
Within a reasonable time after accepting a trusteeship or receiving trust assets, a trustee shall review the trust assets and make and implement decisions concerning the retention and disposition of assets, in order to bring the trust portfolio into compliance with the purposes, terms, and the other circumstances of the trust, and with the requirements of this chapter.
Section 6 – Beneficiaries’ Interests
A trustee shall invest and manage the trust assets solely in the interest of the beneficiaries.
Section 7 – Two or More Beneficiaries
If a trust has two or more beneficiaries, the trustee shall act impartially in investing and managing the trust assets, taking into account any differing interests of the beneficiaries.
Section 8 – Costs Incurred
In investing and managing trust assets, a trustee shall incur only costs that are appropriate and reasonable in relation to the assets, the purpose of the trust, and the skills of the trustee.
Section 9 – Determination of Compliance With Prudent Investor Rule
Compliance with the prudent investor rule shall be determined in light of the facts and circumstances existing at the time of a trustee’s decision or action.
Section 10 – Delegation of Investment and Management Functions
(a) A trustee may delegate investment and management functions if it is prudent to do so. A trustee shall exercise reasonable care, skill and caution in:
(1) selecting an agent;
(2) establishing the scope and terms of the delegation, consistent with the purposes and terms of the trust; and
(3) periodically reviewing the agent’s actions in order to monitor the agent’s performance and compliance with the terms of the delegation.
(b) In performing a delegated function, an agent shall owe a duty to the trust to exercise reasonable care to comply with the terms of the delegation.
(c) A trustee who complies with the requirements of subsection (a) shall not be liable to the beneficiaries or to the trust for the decisions or actions of the agent to whom the function was delegated.
(d) By accepting the delegation of trust functions from the trustee of a trust that is subject to the laws of the commonwealth, an agent submits to the jurisdiction of the courts of the commonwealth.
Section 11 – Trust Provisions; Terms
The following terms or comparable language in the provisions of a trust, unless otherwise limited or modified, authorize any investment or strategy permitted under this chapter and shall not be interpreted to be a restriction, elimination, or other alteration of the prudent investor rule for purposes of subsection (b) of section 2: ”investments permissible by law for investment of trust funds”, ”legal investments”, ”authorized investments”, ”using the judgment and care under the circumstances then prevailing that persons of prudence, discretion, and intelligence exercise in the management of their own affairs, not in regard to speculation but in regard to the permanent disposition of their funds, considering the probable income as well as the probable safety of their capital”, ”prudent man rule”, ”prudent trustee rule”, ”prudent person rule”, and ”prudent investor rule”.